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  Patronage of the Polish Society of Audiology and Phoniatrics




vol 10. no 4. December 2011  
 TABLE OF CONTENT

 Review articles
Common history of the mirror for ear and eye inspection
Edward Mroczkowski, Romuald Wielgosz

The concave mirror with a central aperture in it was for the
first time used by Hofmann in 1841 as the ideal instrument that
allowed reflecting and focussing light into the external auditory
canal and inspecting the tympanic membrane. The physiologist
Helmholtz devised the ophtalmoscope and observed the retina
of a living human. He recommended this type of illumination also
for otosopy. The history of the concave mirror with the central
aperture is already 170 years long. Its further modifications,
such as e.g. reflector fixed to the forehead have been applied
to relieve the hand and make it operative. It is the instrument
of choice in otoscopy, rhinoscopy, laryngoscopy.

keywords: historia otorynolaryngologii, oftalmoskop, otoskop, history of otorhinolaryngology, ophtalmoscope, otoscope

pages: from 154 to 157



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