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  Patronage of the Polish Society of Audiology and Phoniatrics

vol 10. no 3. September 2011  

 Original articles
Hearing evaluation in children with congenital and acquired cytomegalovirus infection
Małgorzata Śmiechura, Agata Makowska Piontek, Andrzej Makowski, Wiesława Wróblewska, Teresa Woźniakowska-Gęsicka, Wiesław Konopka

Introduction. The congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection
is one of the most common intrauterine disease. Symptomatic
CMV infection is present in 5-10% of CMV-infected children.
Typical clinical signs of congenital cytomegalovirus infection are:
microcephalia, mental retardation, progressive hypoacusis, and
neuromuscular infection. Hypoacusis is present in 30-60% of
children with congenital symptomatic CMV; it is bilateral and
usually affects the high-frequency range.
Materials and methods. The study group consisted of
21 children hospitalized due to CMV infection. They were
diagnosed by serological and genetic screening of the viral DNA
using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in urine and blood. In
this group, 15 children were diagnosed with congenital CMV,
and six children with acquired CMV infection. Audiological
examinations, including pure tone audiometry, auditory
brainstem response, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions
(TEOAE) and immitance audiometry were performed in 17 of
the children.
Results. Congenital CMV infection was diagnosed in 15, while
the acquired CMV infection was detected in 6 of the 21 children
in the study group. Hearing was normal in all children with the
acquired CMV infection. Bilateral sensorineural hearing loss was
diagnosed in 6 of the congenital CMV infection patients. Those
children were also characterised by retarded psychomotor
development, mental retardation and microcephalia. No
hypoacusis was noted in 5 of the children in spite that they
showed signs of CMV infection, such as nerve VII paralysis,
hepato- and spleenomegaly and elevated bilirubin level.
Conclusions. Only children with congenital cytomegalovirus
infection showed hearing loss. Nevertheless, audiological
diagnostics and follow-up should be provided to all children
with congenital and acquired CMV infection.

keywords: niedosłuch, cytomegalia, dzieci, hearing loss, CMV infection, children

pages: from 126 to 130

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