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  Authority of Polish Society of Allergology

vol 5. no 1. March 2000  

 Bronchial asthma
Cockroach allergen exposure as etiological factor in bronchial asthma
Iwona Stelmach, Joanna Jerzyńska, Piotr Kuna

This paper is a review of an current literature on presenting cockroach antygen role in etiology of asthma and other allergic diseases. Asthma morbidity and mortality increases each year, also among children. While the cause of these phenomenon is multifactorial, exposure to indoor allergens seems to play a major role as people spend more time indoor daily. Further, cockroaches are very important source of allergens worldwide in different climates. Crowded urban areas, low incom and African-American race are among the risk factors of exposure to cockroach allergen. The two principal domiciliary cockroach species Blatella germanica and Periplaneta americana, secrete major allergens. They showed 70% amino acid sequence identity and are antigenically cross-reactive. Cockroach allergen may be also cross-reactive with dust mites. The question of primary origin of cockroach allergens remains valid. We known that fecal material from cockroach is an important source of allergen also because it is more likely to crumble and become airborne as disseminated dust and may not be detected as easily as live cockroach, whole bodies or body parts. Cockroaches allergens can be found in domestic and public places, mainly in the kitchens, bedrooms, places between walls and floors. There is very little known about strategies for reducing exposures to cockroaches and how it affects the symptoms, medications, bronchial reactivity, and serum IgE. We are able to reduce cockroach allergen levels in dust following application of pesticides and thorough cleaning but after 12 months allergen levels remain high enough to cause disease. Asthma with cockroach hypersensitivity can be diagnosed by skin test plus histamine challenge. In summary, cockroach asthma is a severe allergic asthma and is an important health problem, affecting also children.
Alergia Astma Immunol 2000; 5(1): 37-42

keywords: alergen karalucha, ekspozycja, astma oskrzelowa, cockroach allergen, exposure, asthma bronchiale

pages: from 37 to 42

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