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Otorhinolaryngology
Allergology Review



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  Authority of Polish Society of Allergology




vol 20. no 4. December 2015  
 TABLE OF CONTENT

 Review articles
Rhinitis – important phenotypes, endotypes and therapy
Rafał Fornal, Ryszard Kurzawa, Łukasz Błażowski, Iwona Sak

Rhinitis is one of the most common medical conditions concerning both
adults and children, and as indicated by recent research, present also in
the group of babies /in the first 18 months of life/. Rhinitis is broad concept
including conditions with nasal congestion/ obstruction, rhinorrhea,
sneezing and pruritus resulting from inflammation and/or dysfunction
of the nasal mucosa. There is a number of subtypes falling within the
scope of the term “rhinitis”, several of which still need a more detailed
characterization. The concept of phenotyping has been established in the
last decade and its subtypes have been defined on the basis of clinical
presentation. The characteristics of pathophysiology have been, in turn,
the key to defining the term “endotype”. Classification of allergic rhinitis
into several phenotypes and/or endotypes helps to elucidate both variabilities
of clinical presentation and response to treatment. Phenotypes
and endotypes are dynamic, may overlap and transform one into another,
which makes it difficult to provide a more precise definition of the
term. Nevertheless, a phenotype-/endotype-based classification concept
enables personalization of diagnostics and treatment in the group of rhinitis
patients. In most cases diagnosing of rhinitis is not complicated if
based on clinical characteristic. Phenotyping, however, may prove more
challenging. In this paper several rhinitis phenotypes and endotypes are
characterized, principles of phenotyping are described and diagnostic
methods are discussed. Attention is drawn to an important and not fully
recognized yet problem of early-onset rhinitis. Medications for the treatment
of particular rhinitis phenotypes are presented.

keywords: fenotyp, endotyp, alergiczny nieżyt nosa, medycyna spersonalizowanaphenotype, endotype, allergic rhinitis, personalized medicine

pages: from 242 to 242



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