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Allergology Review

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  Authority of Polish Society of Allergology

vol 20. no 2. June 2015  

 Review articles
Oral tolerance – prognostic factors, patomechanism, immunomodulatory factors
Izabela Sardecka, Aneta Krogulska

Allergy is a significant health problem in modern ages. It affects about
30-40 per cent of children and at first, it is usually manifested as food
allergy, which is thought to represent the failure to acquire the natural
tolerance to food proteins. The majority of children acquire cow milk protein
tolerance before they are 4-5 years old. Oral tolerance determines
systemic immune tolerance and is connected with antigen-specific lymphocytes
TregCD4+CD25+. The transcription factor Foxp3 is the best
marker of Treg lymphocytes. The mechanisms of oral tolerance have not
been yet completely elucidated. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT)
and gut epithelium play a major role in these mechanisms. Besides, the
ability to acquire the tolerance depends on many factors, such as genetic
predisposition, child’s age, maturity of the intestine, the way of feeding
(natural/artificial). Dietary factors, such as probiotics, vitamins A, C, D and
omega3 acid also play an important role in oral tolerance. Cow’s milk
allergy is the major risk factor for allergy to other food proteins and for
the asthma in adulthood. Identification of the factors which can modulate
the development and remission of the symptoms of food allergy is
a challenge to the contemporary medicine.

keywords: alergia pokarmowa, doustna tolerancja, patomechanizm, limfocyty Treg, food allergy, oral tolerance, pathomechanism, Treg lymphocytes

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