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  Authority of Polish Society of Allergology

vol 16. no 2. June 2011  

 Original articles
The influence of specific factors on the prevalence of allergic diseases in a birth cohort study
Ewa Duczmal, Anna Bręborowicz, Tomasz Duczmal

Introduction. During the last decades of the 20th century the number of
allergic diseases has rapidly increased in many developed countries. The
change of environmental conditions is currently considered as one of the
most probable causes of this phenomenon.
Aim of the study. Evaluation of the influence of specific factors on the
prevalence of allergic diseases in a birth cohort.
Material and methods. 450 neonates, born in the Obstetric Ward in
Ostrzeszów, between July 2005 and July 2006, were included into the
birth cohort. Cord blood IgE (cbIgE) level was measured in neonates. For
children at the age of 6, 12 and 18 months old, data about their health
status have been collected, with the use of a questionnaire including 86
questions that concerned: family history, atopic diseases, environmental
factors and others. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the influence
of these factors on the prevalence of atopic diseases.
Results. Allergic symptoms occurred in 39% of children. The incidence
of allergic diseases was greater in children with atopic siblings (OR 2.73;
95% CI 1.44-5,17), first-degree relatives with positive skin prick tests (OR
2.34; 95 % CI 1.19-4.64) and boys (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.16-3.11). Allergic
symptoms were more frequently observed also in the group of children
with rhinitis (OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.01-3.92), colic (OR 2.20; 95% CI 1.26-
3.83) and eczema (OR 1.85; 95% CI 0.91-3.75) in the neonatal period,
infections within the first 3 months of life (OR 2.25; 95% CI 1.36-3.70),
infections during pregnancy (OR 1.87; 95% CI 0.99-3.52) and artificial
feeding up to the 6th month [cow’s milk formula (OR 2.00; 95% CI
1.07-3.72) and the use of hydrolyzed formulas (OR 19.34; 95% CI 8.02-
46.15)]. Children with elevated cbIgE also presented the higher prevalence
of allergy (OR 3.47; 95% CI 2.10-5.73).
Conclusion. During the 18 months of observation, there has been observed
a positive correlation between the prevalence of allergic diseases
and positive skin prick tests in first-degree relatives, male sex, elevated
cbIgE levels, infections during pregnancy, infections within the first
3 months of life, artificial feeding during first 6 months, rhinitis, colic and
eczema symptoms in the neonatal period and siblings with atopy.

keywords: kohorta urodzeniowa, choroby alergiczne, czynniki środowiskowe, immunoglobulina E, krew pępowinowa, birth cohort, allergic diseases, environmental factors, immunoglobulin E, cord blood

pages: from 96 to 104

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