|RYSZARD RUTKOWSKI, KRZYSZTOF RUTKOWSKI, ŁUKASZ STACHURSKI|
The safety aspects of specific immunotherapy (SIT) are still controversial and the procedure has some limitations. The probability of SIT side effects can be significantly reduced by appropriate standardisation of therapeutic allergens, introduction of specific allergoids, new adjuvants, recombinant allergens, synthetic peptides with main epitopes of major allergens, and developing new methods of immunotherapy.
The application of varying arbitrary units or producers' own units may be confusing, render vaccines assessment difficult, lead to ambiguous results of clinical studies, scientific controversies and therapeutic problems during immunotherapy. All allergology societies recommend allergy vaccine standardisation to avoid the above mentioned pitfalls.
The implementation of molecular biology allows us to understand the structure of many allergens and improve the quality of therapeutic preparations. Changing the tertiary structure of allergens or partial deletion of B-cell epitopes allows for the synthesis of allergoids, or chemically modified allergens. The recombinant allergens, which retain all the features of allergoids, may constitute the basis for strictly defined chemical modifications.
The production of allergen vaccines based on new and improved adjuvants is another option for safe SIT. Adjuvants strengthen vaccine immunogenicity without enhancing IgE-mediated reactions. Oligonucleotids (ODN CpG) bound to allergen proteins are the future of immunotherapy.
keywords: szczepionki alergenowe, standaryzacja, alergoidy, alergeny rekombinowane, adiuwanty, allergen vaccines, standardisation, allergoids, recombinant allergens, adjuvants
pages: from 73 to 80
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